Guide Focus: Music of Northeast Brazil (Focus on World Music Series)

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Influenced by American orchestras in vogue since the Second World War and the cultural impact of US music post-war, samba began to use trombones , trumpets, choros , flutes , and clarinets. In addition to distinct rhythms and meters, samba brings a whole historical culture of food, varied dances miudinho, coco, samba de roda, and pernada , parties, clothes such as linen shirts, and the Naif painting of established names such as Nelson Sargento , Guilherme de Brito , and Heitor dos Prazeres.

Anonymous community artists, including painters, sculptors, designers, and stylists, make the clothes, costumes, carnival floats, and cars, opening the doors of schools of samba. There is also a great tradition of ballroom samba in Brazil, with many styles.

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Samba de Gafieira is the style more famous in Rio de Janeiro, where common people used to go to the gafieira parties since the s, and where the moves and identity of this dance emerged, getting more and more different from its African, European, and Cuban [ further explanation needed ] origins and influences. The National Samba Day is celebrated on December 2. The date was established at the initiative of Luis Monteiro da Costa, an alderman of Salvador , in honor of Ary Barroso.

He composed " Na Baixa do sapateiro " even though he had never been in Bahia. Thus 2 December marked the first visit of Ary Barroso to Salvador.

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Initially, this day was celebrated only in Salvador, but eventually it turned into a national holiday. The etymology of samba is uncertain. One of the oldest records of the word samba appeared in Pernambuco magazine's O carapuceiro , dated February , when Father Miguel Lopes Gama of Sacramento wrote against what he called "the samba d'almocreve" — not referring to the future musical genre, but a kind of merriment dance drama popular for black people of that time. In the middle of the 19th century, the word samba defined different types of music made by African slaves when conducted by different types of Batuque , but it assumed its own characteristics in each Brazilian state , not only by the diversity of tribes for slaves, but also the peculiarity of each region in which they were settlers.

In Argentina , there is a dance called " zamba ", a name which seems to share etymological origins with the samba, but the dance itself is quite different. Samba-enredo or samba de enredo is a subgenre of samba, performed by a samba school or escola de samba for the festivities of Brazilian Carnival.

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Each samba school sings one song in the Carnaval parade. A new song must be written each year for each school; they must be on Brazilian topics. The Carnaval parade is among other things a samba competition, with judges, who rank the new sambas according to their perceived merit. Being by definition topical, sambas-enredo are seldom performed outside of the Carnaval environment. For each samba school, choosing the following year's samba-enredo is a long process. Well in advance of the Carnaval parade, each samba school holds a contest for writing the song.

Focus: Music of Northeast Brazil / Edition 2

The song is written by samba composers from within the school itself "Ala dos Compositores" , or sometimes from outside composers, normally in " parcerias " partnerships. Each school receives many—sometimes hundreds—songs, sometimes hundreds of them, each hoping to be the next samba-enredo for that year. The samba-enredo is written by these numerous composers mentioned above only after the Carnival Art Director, or "Carnavalesco", officially publishes the samba school 's parade theme synopsis for the year.

After a careful explanation of the parade-theme, many times done by the Carnival Art Director himself, composers may ask questions in order to clarify the synopsis, so they can start writing the samba-enredos. The schools select the song by process of elimination and usually end up with somewhere between five and ten songs. Around this time, the finalist sambas-enredo are played with music and are voted on by the leaders of the samba school and the Carnavalesco —the director of the school for Carnaval. After months of deliberation, the new samba-enredo is chosen and becomes the voice of the samba school for the next year's Carnaval.

The most important night in this process, is called the "final de samba", or samba final, when the samba school decides between two or three samba-enredos. At the end of the process, the winning samba-enredo is selected, and it is this song that is sung during the school's parade in the sambadrome. This process normally happens in Brazil from August until November, and today is highly professionalized, with samba-composers hiring fans, producing CDs, banners, and throwing parties to promote their samba-enredo.

It is important to note that the samba-enredo is one of the criteria used by the Judging committee to decide who is the winner of the Carnaval parade competition. The samba-enredo must be well sung by the samba school's puxador or singer or the school will lose points. While the puxador sings, everyone marching in the Carnaval parade sings the samba-enredo along with him, and harmony is another judging criterion. It was in Rio de Janeiro that the dance practiced by former slaves ,who migrated from Bahia came into contact with and incorporated other genres played in the city such as the polka , the maxixe , the lundu , and the xote , acquiring a completely unique character and creating the samba carioca urbana samba school and carnavalesco Carnaval school director.

During the first decade of the 20th century, some songs under the name of samba were recorded, but these recordings did not achieve great popularity. However, in , " Pelo Telefone " "By Telephone" was recorded, [13] and it is considered the first true samba. Actually, "Pelo Telefone" was created by a collective of musicians who participated in celebrations at the house of Tia Ciata Aunt Ciata.

It was eventually registered by Donga and the Almeida National Library. From that moment on, samba started to spread across the country, initially associated with Carnival and then developing its own place in the music market. As the samba consolidated as an urban and modern expression, it began to be played on radio stations, spreading across the hills and neighborhoods to the affluent southern areas of Rio de Janeiro. Initially viewed with prejudice and discrimination because it had black roots, the samba, because of its hypnotic rhythms and melodic intonations in addition to its playful lyrics, eventually conquered the white middle class as well.

The samba is frequently associated abroad with football and Carnaval. Bossa nova finally entered the country into the world of samba music. Brazilian percussionist and studio musician Paulinho Da Costa , currently based in Los Angeles, incorporates the rhythms and instrumentation of the samba into the albums of hundreds of American, European and Japanese artists — including producer Quincy Jones , jazz performer Dizzy Gillespie , pop singer Michael Jackson and vocalist Barbra Streisand.

The success of the samba in Europe and Japan only confirms its ability to win fans, regardless of their language. Currently, there are hundreds of samba schools on European soil and scattered among countries like Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Already in Japan, the records invest heavily in the launch of former sambistas' set of discs, which eventually created a market composed solely of catalogs of Japanese record labels.

These stands form poor communities that these people called the favelas later the term became synonymous with the irregular buildings of the poor. There are some controversies about the word samba-raiado , one of the first appointments to the samba. At the same time, there were the samba-corrido , a line that had more work together with the rural Bahian accent, and the samba-chulado, a more rhyming and melodic style that characterized the urban samba carioca.


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By the s, Republican propagandists were attempting to prohibit samba on the pretext that folklorist dances shamed Brazil's national image. Not scored note by note but, as with jam bands or jazz, each performance is unique, capturing the energy of the moment. Melodies from chromatic angularity to singing themes. A stint in the original Club Foot Orchestra, whose members then included Snakefinger The Residents and Eric Drew Feldman Capt Beefheart , introduced her to electronic processing for horns, and brief study at Mills College under Anthony Braxton solidified her direction.

Her bands have been known for "scalp shearing shows", "feats of bravery", and for music that is " Former percussionist with the improvisational outfit: Agnes Warhead, has studied Brazilian percussion in Salvador and Rio, an active member of several percussion ensembles. Playing unscripted, improvisational music , the music is best described as psychedelic jazz. The tenth album "How to Build a Spacekraft", from Urban Shaman Attack, has been in the top 50 of iTunes new jazz releases worldwide for over nine months, reaching 14 in August.

Experience these psychedelic sounds for yourself.. Board the Spacekraft that is USA.


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His sound has been influenced by meditative music such as Javanese gamelan and minimal drone, as well as various styles of 's electronic music. Dwyer's music is sparse yet texturally intricate, lying in some sort of electro-acoustic limbo between Namlook's more dusty ambient collaborations, literal Phonography and contemporary classical experimentalism. His latest album, 'On Earth', recently released on Stasis Recordings, embraces ambient techno with room to breathe. The album merges tectonic transitions between a tapestry of emotive sound.

The seven tracks each act as their own micro-climate, their own continent, emulating the strange and wonderful world we all share. He is known for his distinct textural guitar voice utilizing looping, bowing, electronics, and prepared techniques. After 20 years of world touring, stunning collaborations, and over 70 albums of credits, this Philadelphia-based guitarist continues to traverse manifold territories in music.

In , Tim toured the world playing concerts and jazz festivals with Bandit65, an improvising trio he co-leads with guitarist Kurt Rosenwinkel and drummer Gintas Janusonis.

In the world of modern dance, Motzer composes and performs live solo scores around the world. Most recently he has performed to sold out houses in Tokyo, Japan; Seoul, S. Korea; Oujda, Morocco; and Toronto, Canada. He releases his genre-defying solo work and collaborations on 1k Recordings.

Datadrift is the electronic music project of Guinevere Molly Campbell. Creating soundscapes since , she uses an east-coast, hardware-focused approach, based on her love for the keyboard interface as well as the corralling of machines with unique interfaces and timbres to communicate with one another and find dialog or harmony.

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Focus: Music of Northeast Brazil (Focus on World Music Series)

Her principal approach is texture-driven, creating synthesizer patches that resonate with a mood or idea, then working with that sonic palette to create a soundscape that combines improvisation with sequenced aspects. Creating soundscapes sincedatadrift. The duo cmbines Sheppard's American Primitive-style acoustic finger picking with Gardner's extended improvisational and textural electric playing. The duo grew up together in the deep woods and rotting industrial husks of central New Jersey and have been collaborating on and off since the mids.

He lives in the Brandywine region of Pennsylvania. Drew Gardner lives in New York City and combines poetry and music in spontaneously conducted ensembles. His CD, Flarf Orchestra, appeared in Ritchie DeCarlo is a well known drummer in the Philadelphia area. Released the first solo album in titled WEEK. The past decade his recording engineer hat has been on and working at TTR studios on many projects.

Today Ritchie is incorporating all of his 40 years experience into his solo live performances. Extended techniques, location recordings, and radio receptions are woven together to create undulating sonic environments.


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Hudson, NY resident Nathan McLaughlin explores sound with a focus on the stringed instruments and reel to reel, studies are carried out on the philosophical idea of going to the center. These new pieces utilize a variety of time stretching and looping analog and digital tools to explore the beauty found when digital wrestles with analog, and have very few notes to win the battle.

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These stretched textures offer a rich bed of sound, the shifting tide that emerges where digital and analog meet that is at times challenging Improvisational pieces will be interwoven using guitars, amplified surfaces and field recordings. Their music consists of long structured improvisational pieces which transport the listener to the depths of space while focusing on each precious unfolding moment.

Art's sequencer-like echoed guitar figures provide rhythmic propulsion while Scott's synthetic pads and sub-octave rumblings build a foundation for both guitarists to soar in melodic flights. Following the trail blazed by Pink Floyd, The Grateful Dead, and the Berlin School, Guitar Pilots carve out their own unique sonic territory that is both organic as the ground underneath and as far-reaching as a distant pulsar. He coaxes an extended pallet of sounds from his guitar through the use of synths and modelling processors.

He has built many of his own instruments including an other-worldly sounding foot beam. Echoes of Gilmour, Hendrix and Froese can be heard in Scott's textural and melodic playing. You can listen to Guitar Pilots are their soundcloud page.

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Rosser typically moves beyond a standard recital format, making for a unique event that combines music ranging from classical to jazz to popular with stories and performance art, continually pushing the boundaries of what the theremin can play and do. His programs for special events are tailored specifically to suit occasion and client musical preferences. In an academic setting, the programs are always age appropriate and the presentation specific to the class subject.